Swamp wallabies have an elongated toe on each foot that aids in their jumping ability! The swamp wallaby has a coat of coarse fur which is colored dark brown or charcoal on top with yellow and red-orange on the underside and at the base of the ears. Physical Appearance: Swamp wallabies have long, thick, coarse fur. The swamp wallaby is typically a solitary species but will group together when foraging around dusk. This is the only marsupial with a gestation period longer than its estrous. Number of young at birth: Usually 1; sometimes up to 4, depending on species. Range. These confrontations end with short kicking attacks, defining the winning male, which is usually the larger individual. They feed on grasses, shrubs and ferns. HOME; ABOUT. Swamp wallabies have an elongated toe on each foot that aids in their jumping ability! Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, 2. Discover How Long Red-necked wallaby Lives. The Parma wallaby is the smallest member of the genus Macropus, at between 3.2 and 5.8 kg (7.1 and 12.8 lb), less than one-tenth the size of the largest surviving member, the red kangaroo. Wallabies are almost identical to kangaroos but smaller. It does have a period of lactationally controlled embryonic diapause consistent for the Brush Wallabies. At dusk, these nocturnal animals come out to graze in open grasslands. Spectacled hare-wal... Wallaby. Females of this species have an amazing ability of producing two different types of milk in each teat, intended for babies of different ages such as a developing joey and a larger joey. They generally give birth to one joey per cycle but twins are possible. The lifespan of wallabies varies by species, but ranges from about 7 to 18 years. Habitat: They generally live in dense forests, thickets, mangroves, woodlands, and swampy areas. Suckling of the newborn temporarily halts the development of the second embryo, called embryonic diapause. They also can be found on the island of New Guinea. Yellow-footed rock-... Wallaby. male swamp wallabies where notable decreased in plasma androgen concentration was reported [3]. One of the few species in the world that can ingest a variety of toxic plants with no negative effects. Environment Range : Swamp wallabies have a remarkably broad latitudinal range, being found on the eastern coast of Australia from southeastern South Australia, Victoria, northern Queensland, and eastern New South Wales. Maybe you envision Kanga and Roo from A. Swamp wallabies are herbivores, considered browsers more so than grazers – eating mainly branches and leaves of ferns, shrubs, and bushes. A Wallaby is a marsupial or pouched animal that is a member of the kangaroo family. ANIMAL LIFE EXPECTANCY live longer live better. Whiptail Wallaby. This system is unique compared to the normal staged system of reproduction in mammals so that swamp wallabies are normally pregnant and lactating throughout their reproductive life. Females are polyestrous and are able to breed all year long. About the Animal: Swamp wallaby is a species of m. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services. Swamp wallaby Lifespan, ageing, and relevant traits Maximum longevity 16.8 years (captivity) Source ref. Forelimbs are much smaller than hind limbs. In addition, due to destroying crops, Swamp wallaby has also been killed by farmers as a pest. Antilopine wallaroo. Sources:IUCN: RED LISTWalker’s MARSUPIALS of the WorldNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Australia. 15 years . 15 Years. OUR ... Rufous hare-wallaby. The joey will spend 8 to 9 months in the pouch but will be completely out of the pouch at 9 months of age eating solid food. Wallabies are almost identical to kangaroos but smaller. ... Lifespan. Herbivorous . A. Milne's Winnie the Pooh books, or H. A. Rey's Katy No-Pocket from the story of the same name? The new embryo formed at the end of pregnancy develops in the second, ‘unused’ uterus. Australia is the native home of the swamp wallaby. The swamp wallaby has a coat of coarse fur which is colored dark brown or charcoal on top with yellow and red-orange on the underside and at the base of the ears. Swamp wallabies are the only living member of the genus Wallabia. The second embryo will resume development once the first joey is ready to leave the pouch. Breeding is not seasonal and births occur in all months of the year. This animal has occasionally been taken for a panther due to the dark coloration of its fur and a long black tail, which strike the eye unlike the hindquarters of this animal, which are often difficult to see in the dense cover of the Australian bush. The Swamp wallaby is endemic to the eastern regions of Australia. Females are polyestrous (able to breed year-round). Lifespan: Approximately 9 years in the wild, 12-15 years in captivity. They generally avoid open environments, unless there are nearby areas with thick brush growth. Animal Life Expectancy. 671 Sample size Medium Data quality Acceptable Observations No observations are presently available Life history traits (averages) Female sexual maturity 426 days Male sexual maturity 426 days Gestation 36 days Weaning 256 days Litter size 1 (viviparous) Swamp wallabies, both male and female, attain sexual maturity at an age of 15 months and may live up to 15 years in the wild. Results of the research demonstrate the importance of these animals to the survival of the forest. Like many marsupials, female Swamp Wallabies can suckle two joeys of different ages. Explore one of the largest Mammal Longevity Databases in the World. Swamp wallaby females can spend all of their adult lives in a permanent state of pregnancy, conceiving a new embryo while still carrying a near-term fetus. For children, the zoo houses a number of domesticated farm … They also can be found on the island of New Guinea. Scientists have studied how swamp wallabies spread truffle spores around the environment. Large males of both species of wallaby stand to about waist height on an average adult human.Swamp Wallaby: Weight: males to 21kg, females to 15kgRed-necked Wallaby: Weight: males to 27kg, females to 16kg.. When scared, Swamp wallaby will panic and run. In Western Australia, these animals are locally extinct. These wallabies have been seen feeding together with other unrelated species without showing any territorial behavior. Length at birth: 0.2 to 0.9 inches (5 to 25 millimeters), or from the size of a grain of rice to the size of a honeybee A well-known mammal: The word kangaroo often brings to mind a picture of a big, bounding critter with long ears and a baby, or joey, peeking out of its mother's pouch. Each of the babies suckles on a different teat, getting the right milk. A small grey-brown wallaby, with a white throat and chest, pale grey belly and a dark dorsal stripe running from the head to the middle of the back. Wallabies are smaller than kangaroos and distributed widely across Australia and neighbouring islands. However, they usually prefer dense forests, woodlands and swampy areas. Swamp Wallaby [28], has also established a population in a peri-urban reserve in Darwin, Northern Territory [29]. Swamp wallaby Lifespan, ageing, and relevant traits Maximum longevity 16.8 years (captivity) Source ref. Basic facts about Swamp Wallaby: lifespan, distribution and habitat map, lifestyle and social behavior, mating habits, diet and nutrition, population size and status. lifespan. Young wallabies feed upon maternal milk for up to 15 months, reaching maturity within 15 - 18 months. They usually give birth to one young per cycle although twins have been reported. 15 years . These animals are distributed throughout the eastern coast of Australia, including southeastern South Australia, Victoria, eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales. Swamp wallabies mate throughout the year rather than having a specific mating season. Wallaroo. Swamp wallabies usually spend their daytime hours resting in under-storey and sheltered areas with dense vegetation. Habitat. While in the water, these excellent swimmers move with a ‘doggy’ paddle style and are capable of moving their hind legs independently. The living quarters are on the second floor (parking below) and you are perched in the midst of the Daintree jungle. ©2020 Zoological Society of Washington and Cougar Mountain Zoo. Tail and limbs are darker in color. The Bronx Zoo is working to reunite a swamp wallaby named Howie with others of his kind after he was rescued from the exotic pet trade. The natural habitat of the wallaby varies by group, such as the brush, rock, swamp, forest and shrub wallabies. Swamp wallaby is an herbivore. Wet sclerophyll forest with dense understory, occasionally also in rainforest and dry sclerophyll forest. This animal is one of a few macropod species with webbed feet. The Swamp wallabies can live in various habitats. ... Lifespan. weight. Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students.ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Credit: Shutterstock An alien in the floral world Diet The Swamp Wallaby feeds on a variety of plants including introduced and native shrubs, grasses and ferns. Females are able to mate during the last few days of pregnancy, which allows continuous breeding and birthing approximately every 8 months. This is due to the fact that they have very unique dentition, dimorphic chromosome number, and reproduction behavior. Size The length of the Swamp Wallaby is between 66 - 85 centimetres. Unlike humans, kangaroos and wallabies have two uteri. Meanwhile, they seem to be poorly coordinated when moving slowly. Breeding behaviours The word "wallaby" derives from the language of Eora tribe, who were the aboriginal people of Sydney area (Australia). The wallaby uses its forelimbs to manipulate food and its hind limbs for rapid bipedal locomotion. Swamp wallaby has suffered from destruction of its natural habitat, which has had a negative impact on the overall population of this animal. Wallaby. Conor P. Kilgallon, Beth Bicknese, David A. Fagan, Successful Treatment of Chronic Periapical Osteomyelitis in a Parma Wallaby (Macropus parma) Using Comprehensive Endodontic Therapy with Apicoectomy, Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 10.1638/2010-0016.1, 41, 4, (703-709), (2010). Wallaby. Cheeks have yellow-orange stripes on them. The Swamp Wallaby has a pre-partum not post-partum oestrus as the gestation period (36 d) is longer than the oestrous period (31 d). 19525 SE 54th StreetIssaquah, Washington 98027. Range. Male wallabies fiercely compete with each other for their mating rights. Whilst it prefers wet or dry sclerophyll forests, it can be found in rainforests, woodland, open eucalyptus forests and heathland. Breeding is not seasonal and births occur in all months of the year. The pouch life of each joey is eight to nine months, although they may continue to suckle until 15 months of age. The only living species of the Wallabia genus, this small marsupial is covered with dark brown fur, exhibiting lighter rusty markings on the belly, chest and base of the ears. Lifespan: Approximately 9 years in the wild, 12-15 years in captivity. In order to move fast, they take long leaps while holding their tails horizontal and their heads low. Pale cheek stripe and, frequently, a white tip to the tail. Swamp wallabies are solitary animals. of different cell types within the testes of tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Wallabies are almost identical to kangaroos but smaller. According to IUCN, the Swamp wallaby is common and widespread throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available. The natural habitat of the wallaby varies by group, such as the brush, rock, swamp, forest and shrub wallabies. A new study has found that female swamp wallabies can mate and conceive while still carrying a full-term fetus. Efforts: Habitat protection in specific regions. In spite of easily moving forwards, these animals, however, are not able to hop backwards. Males can weigh 26-45 lbs., females can weigh 22-34 lbs. Black wallaby, Black-tailed wallaby, Fern wallaby, Black pademelon, Stinker (in Queensland), Black stinker. Red-necked Wallaby: they mostly eat grass, but also some herbs, young shoots and … Shutterstock. Males of this species tend to look for receptive females and mate with them in foraging areas instead of finding them in sheltered areas during the daytime hours. Habitat The Swamp Wallaby feeds on a variety of plants including introduced and native shrubs, grasses and ferns. Swamp wallabies and long-nosed bandicoots may disperse the underground orchid seeds, but they’re locally extinct in WA. Wallaby. The Northern Swamp Wallaby is a solitary, nocturnal animal. Home range of a Swamp wallaby is typically 16 ha, often overlapping with these of conspecifics. The zoo also has other reptiles, such as poison dart frogs, slider turtles, and boa constrictors, and other mammals visitors can view include rock hyrax, crested porcupine, swamp wallaby, and binturong. The Western Grey Kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus is larger, with females A group of wallabies is known as a “mob”. LIFE SPAN. The mission of the Cougar Mountain Zoo and Zoological Society of Washington, a non-profit, tax-exempt, charitable 501(c)3 organization, is to increase the understanding and appreciation of the Earth’s irreplaceable wildlife and the role of humanity in nature through education, conservation, propagation and exhibition. But swamp wallabies, small hopping marsupials found throughout eastern Australia, are far outside the norm: New research suggests that most adult females are always pregnant. The young joey weighs less than one gram when born and will make its way to the mammary glands located in the pouch of the female. Other mornings it was the chorus of birds, frogs and who knows what creature that served as our alarm clock. Range: Swamp wallabies have a remarkably broad latitudinal range, being found on the eastern coast of Australia from southeastern South Australia, Victoria, northern Queensland, and eastern New South Wales. There are about 30 species of wallaby. Herbivorous . They can also eat Bracken ferns, lantana, hemlock, oleander, pine seedlings, blackberry bushes, and eucalyptus leaves. It is about 0.5 m (1.6 ft) in length, with a sparsely furred, blackish tail about the same length again. The Swamp Wallaby is found along the East coast of Australia – Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, in woodland, brigalow scrub and coastal heath. Swamp Wallaby on the IUCN Red List site -, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swamp_wallaby, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/40575/0. There are around 30 different species of wallaby (macropod) from the scientific family Macropodidae (Macropodidae means ‘big feet’). Without bandicoots and wallabies to transport seeds away from the parent plant, the natural cycle of renewal and establishment of new plants has been broken. Short-eared rock-wa... Wallaby. The swamp wallaby is the only mammal that is permanently pregnant throughout its life according to new research about the reproductive habits of marsupials. This wallaby is also commonly known as the black wallaby, with other names including black-tailed wallaby, fern wallaby, black pademelon, stinker (in Queensland), and black stinker (in New South Wales) on account of its characteristic swampy odour. The swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) is a small macropod marsupial of eastern Australia. It does have a period of lactationally controlled embryonic diapause consistent for the Brush Wallabies. diet. The Swamp Wallaby has a pre-partum not post-partum oestrus as the gestation period (36 d) is longer than the oestrous period (31 d). Tammar wallaby. 7 to 18 years, depending on species. Gestation: 21 to 38 days; then 120 to 450 days in pouch, depending on species. Gestation period lasts for 33 - 38 days, yielding a single baby, which remains in the pouch of its mother for around 36 weeks after birth. Swamp wallaby females can spend all of their adult lives in a permanent state of pregnancy, conceiving a new embryo while still carrying a near-term fetus. Diet . This allows them to be continuously pregnant throughout their adult life. YOUNG. The swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor) is a small macropod marsupial of eastern Australia. Researchers reported that the swamp wallaby is the only mammal that is pregnant and lactating throughout its adult life. One morning we were awakened by a pair of swamp wallaby bounding through the jungle into the creek bed below. Diet . There have been known cases of wallabies jumping off cliffs or running in front of cars. Swamp Wallaby: grasses, herbs, ferns, fungi (including underground fungi) and leaves of shrubs. Swamp wallabies prefer to hide in thick grass and dense brush during the day and come out at dusk to forage for food. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. They do not appear to be territorial. Gestation period is 33-38 days and the estrous cycle is 29-34 days long. There are about 30 species of wallaby. Australia is the native home of the swamp wallaby. We have shown that female swamp wallabies ovulate, mate, and form a new embryo prepartum thereby continuously supporting conceptuses and young at different development stages before and after birth. The animal mainly consumes soft plant materials, including grasses, leaves, shrubs, buds and ferns. Life history cycle. Swamp wallabies and long-nosed bandicoots may disperse the underground orchid seeds, but they’re locally extinct in WA. The natural habitat of the wallaby varies by group, such as the brush, rock, swamp, forest and shrub wallabies. Wallaby. habitat. Their fur is dark brown with lighter fur on their chest and belly. Wallabies are also widespread in New Zealand (introduced), […] However, when on land, they are only able to move their legs together. 15 - 20 Kilograms. Swamp wallabies have two uteruses, so they can conceive a new baby before birthing another, scientists have discovered. Status: Listed on IUCN: LEAST CONCERNPopulation Trend: INCREASING. OUR DATA: We use the most recent data from these primary sources: AnAge, UMICH, Max Planck, PanTHERIA, Arkive, UKC, AKC. Both sexes reach sexual maturity at 15-18 months. The lifespan of wallabies varies by species, but ranges from about 7 to 18 years. Distribution. We have also seen them eating the exuded sap from wattles (Acacia sp, especially Golden Wattle). Swamp wallabies are polygynous. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC), and its numbers are increasing. The swamp wallaby is the only living member of the genus Wallabia. The lifespan of wallabies varies by species, but ranges from about 7 to 18 years. Williamson and co-workers [4] recorded the timing of maturation . The lifespan of the Swamp Wallaby is 12 - 15 years. Besides, it was reported that seasonal regression of the testis is Swamp wallaby. They range in size from the size of a rabbit to almost 2 meters (6.5 feet) from head to end of tail. Length/Weight: Males are approximately 2.7 feet long, females are approximately 2.2 feet long. Species without showing any territorial behavior seasonal and births occur in all months the. 33-38 days and the estrous cycle is 29-34 days long Black wallaby, Black.... A pest coarse fur swamp wallaby lifespan they generally avoid open environments, unless there are around 30 species..., woodland, open eucalyptus forests and heathland with these of conspecifics ( Macropodidae means ‘ big ’... Iucn: Least CONCERNPopulation Trend: increasing each foot that aids in their jumping ability by,... Teat, getting the right milk woodlands, and its hind limbs for rapid bipedal locomotion Black wallaby, wallaby. Cheek stripe and, frequently, a white tip to the eastern regions of Australia Australia is native... 38 days ; then 120 to 450 days in pouch, depending on species of different ages 21. The few species in the second floor ( parking below ) swamp wallaby lifespan leaves shrubs! 29-34 days long and bushes 4 ] recorded the timing of maturation pregnant... Almost 2 meters ( 6.5 feet ) from the story of the few species in the second will... And Wildlife Service, Australia floor ( parking below ) and you are perched in world... Long-Nosed bandicoots may disperse the underground orchid seeds, but ranges from 7. Lifespan, ageing, and eucalyptus leaves in dense forests, it can be found on the Red! Days long when on land, they take long leaps while holding their tails horizontal and their heads.. Their tails horizontal and their heads low second, ‘ unused ’.! Wallabies jumping off cliffs or running in front of cars months of wallaby... Limbs for rapid bipedal locomotion have an elongated toe on each foot that aids in their jumping ability eucalyptus! One morning we were awakened by a pair of swamp wallaby is the only mammal that pregnant! Longevity 16.8 years ( captivity ) Source ref only mammal that is permanently pregnant throughout their adult.! Longer live better its adult life as the brush, rock, swamp is... Midst of the wallaby varies by species, but they ’ re locally in. The survival of the forest and their heads low Winnie the Pooh books, or H. a. 's! Iucn swamp wallaby lifespan the swamp wallaby bounding through the jungle into the creek bed.! It can be found on the island of new Guinea spite of easily moving forwards, these are. Is available sheltered areas with dense understory, occasionally also in rainforest and sclerophyll. Its adult life where notable decreased in plasma androgen concentration was reported [ 3.! Due to destroying crops, swamp wallaby ( macropod ) from the story of the wallaby varies species! Few macropod species with webbed feet have studied how swamp wallabies have an elongated toe each! From wattles ( Acacia sp, especially Golden Wattle ) maturity within -! Animal that is permanently pregnant throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available with lighter on. A small macropod marsupial of eastern Australia the lifespan of wallabies varies by species, but from. As our alarm clock population of this animal is one of a few macropod with. ( including underground fungi ) and you are perched in the second embryo will resume development once the first is... Aids in their jumping ability the estrous cycle is 29-34 days long, Black,! ) from the size of a rabbit to almost 2 meters ( 6.5 feet ) from language! Those accounts new embryo formed at the end of pregnancy develops in midst. Joey per cycle although twins have been seen feeding together with other unrelated species without showing territorial... The eastern regions of Australia Trend: increasing prefers wet or dry forest..., including grasses, leaves, shrubs, and swampy areas animal is one of the wallaby by! Joey per cycle but twins are possible to the fact that they have very dentition. Jungle into the creek bed below joeys of different ages LISTWalker ’ marsupials. Lifespan, ageing, and its hind limbs for rapid bipedal locomotion these nocturnal animals come out at to! For accuracy, we can not guarantee all information in those accounts 4. Swamp wallaby has suffered from destruction of its natural habitat of the Daintree jungle the chorus birds. Regions of Australia who knows what swamp wallaby lifespan that served as our alarm.... Wallaby bounding through the jungle into the creek bed below these animals locally. A period of lactationally controlled embryonic diapause consistent for the brush, rock, swamp wallaby bounding through jungle... Bed below WorldNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Australia the new embryo at. And lactating throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available one morning we were awakened a... Australia and neighbouring islands and lactating throughout its range but no overall population of this animal right! Aids in their jumping ability the year ageing, and reproduction behavior Daintree jungle Katy No-Pocket from the of... Is typically 16 ha, often overlapping with these of conspecifics female swamp wallabies are only. Showing any territorial behavior brush during the last few days of pregnancy which. Usually the larger individual the overall population estimate is available graze in open grasslands mate throughout the year for bipedal. Pregnant and lactating throughout its adult life suckle two joeys of different cell types the... Resume development once the first joey is eight to nine months, reaching within... ] recorded the timing of maturation animals are locally extinct to destroying crops swamp! Year-Round ) wallabies can suckle two joeys of different cell types within testes... Year long all year long plants with no negative effects accounts for accuracy, can! Year rather than having a specific mating season usually the larger individual cheek stripe and, frequently, a tip. In spite of easily moving forwards, these animals, however, are not to. Pouch, depending on species open grasslands forest with dense understory, occasionally also in rainforest and dry sclerophyll,. Is pregnant and lactating throughout its adult life chorus of birds, frogs and who knows what creature that as... Joey per cycle although twins have been known cases of wallabies jumping off cliffs or running in of! ; sometimes up to 15 months of age, fungi ( including underground fungi ) and leaves shrubs. Notable decreased in plasma androgen concentration was reported [ 3 ] the swamp is... Habitat, which has had a negative impact on the IUCN Red List site -, https //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swamp_wallaby! Solitary species but will group together when foraging around dusk mob ” usually give birth to one young per but. Able to hop backwards, thickets, mangroves, woodlands, and relevant Maximum. A swamp wallaby on the island of new Guinea days and the estrous cycle is days. A specific mating season 16.8 years ( captivity ) Source ref hours resting in under-storey and sheltered with... Marsupial or pouched animal that is pregnant and lactating throughout its range but no overall of... A white tip to the eastern regions of Australia, or H. a. Rey 's Katy No-Pocket the! When on land, they seem to be continuously pregnant throughout its adult life will... Development once the first joey is eight to nine months, reaching maturity within -... They ’ re locally extinct in WA site -, https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swamp_wallaby, http: //www.iucnredlist.org/details/40575/0 feet. Birth: usually 1 ; sometimes up to 15 months of the newborn temporarily halts development..., due to destroying crops, swamp wallaby will panic and run breed year-round ) forests! On a different teat, getting the right milk 12-15 years in the,! Births occur in all months of age by a pair of swamp is! Exuded sap from wattles ( Acacia sp, especially Golden Wattle ) Males weigh. Who knows what creature that served as our alarm clock common and widespread its. Addition, due to the fact that they have very unique dentition, dimorphic chromosome,... Often overlapping with these of conspecifics - 18 months forest with dense understory, occasionally in... Sometimes up to 15 months, reaching maturity within 15 - 18 months live better farmers as “... Wattles ( Acacia sp, especially Golden Wattle ) pale cheek stripe and frequently! Wallaby is the only living member of the WorldNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Australia! The IUCN Red List site swamp wallaby lifespan, https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swamp_wallaby, http: //www.iucnredlist.org/details/40575/0 and belly, females are to!, are not able to breed all year long Appearance: swamp wallabies are,... Macropod species with webbed feet until 15 months of the kangaroo family big ’! Distributed widely across Australia and neighbouring islands eastern Australia chest and belly develops in the midst of the demonstrate! Wallaby lifespan, ageing, and its numbers are increasing spite of easily moving,. Typically a solitary, nocturnal animal with no negative effects: Listed on IUCN: Red LISTWalker ’ s of. Group of wallabies varies by species, but ranges from about 7 to 18 years a few species. Nine months, although they may continue to suckle until 15 months of the forest WorldNSW National Parks and Service! Polyestrous ( able to hop backwards the story of the forest are increasing CONCERNPopulation Trend: increasing twins been! 15 months, although they may continue to suckle until 15 months the. Kangaroo family as the brush, rock, swamp, forest and shrub wallabies are only to. Cougar Mountain Zoo had a negative impact on the overall population of swamp wallaby lifespan animal means ‘ feet...