[11], The building projects of the Church in the High Middle Ages showed an ambition for the colossal, with vast amounts of stone being quarried, and the same was true of the Cistercian projects. Why these unsightly monkeys, why these fierce lions, why the monstrous centaurs, why semi-humans, why spotted tigers, why fighting soldiers, why trumpeting huntsmen? [7], This new Cistercian architecture embodied the ideals of the order, and was in theory at least utilitarian and without superfluous ornament. However, Bernard of Clairvaux quickly gained influence in the order. That they did much more than…, …own right are the many Cistercian abbeys built during the Romanesque period in England—among them, Rievaulx (. In the next few years further abbeys were founded in other parts of Britain, notably Yorkshire and in Scotland and Wales. Cistercian architecture exhibits characteristics of both modes. Founded shortly after World War II in Poland, the abbey is a typical example of baroque architecture. (2013); 'Cistercian Architecture or Architecture of the Cistercians?' They placed importance on metal, both the extraction of the ore and its subsequent processing. Photograph by James F. Wilson [5] In order to achieve such moving effects, the interiors of many religious buildings were designed to be witnessed at specific times of the day such as sunrise and sunset to capture the shifting light. See more ideas about Architecture, Architect, Architecture design. A masterpiece of Baroque architecture in Silesia, Poland, it was established in 1175. They placed importance on metal, both the extraction of the ore and its subsequent processing. Page 1 of 55. Reflecting this severity is the austerely impressive architecture of the more than 700 Cistercian monasteries that spread throughout Europe in the 12th century, most of them built in isolated places. The architect gives us a enlightened tour of the Cistercian Monastery of Our Lady of Nový Dvur in Bohemia. [3] This new "architecture of light" was intended to raise the observer "from the material to the immaterial"[4] – it was, according to the 20th century French historian Georges Duby, a "monument of applied theology". These buildings probably encouraged the early dissemination of the pointed arch. Various buildings, including the chapter-house to the east and the dormitories above, were grouped around a cloister, and were sometimes linked to the transept of the church itself by a night stair. Saved from ancient-egypt.co.uk. The Cistercian order was quite innovative in developing techniques of hydraulic engineering for monasteries established in remote valleys. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture and has made an important contribution to European civilization. Many Cistercian establishments display early examples of hydraulic engineering and waterwheels. Their wide geographical spread was the principal means for the dissemination of the pointed arch, in anticipation of full-fledged Gothic construction. At the abbey of Fontenay the forge is not outside, as one might expect, but inside the monastic enclosure: metalworking was thus part of the activity of the monks and not of the lay brothers. Currently active abbeys. Through stunning architectural photographs of Cistercian abbeys, Scarchilli demonstrates the quiet power of the simple, utilitarian architecture. Cistercian architecture must have startled even the contemporaries who knew the historical facts and aesthetic theories in which it found its justification (Fig. Corrections? Through this process the monastery will become an architectural scar. Abbaye De Lérins. In Cistercian churches, the nave was the site of the Laybrothers’ Choir, the area in which those members of the community charged with manual work attended Mass and an abbreviated form of the Divine Office at the beginning and the end of their day’s work, and the monks’ choir to the east. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Cistercian barns consisted of a stone exterior, divided into nave and aisles either by wooden posts or by stone piers. [16] The first tracing in Byland illustrates a west rose window, while the second depicts the central part of that same window. This is a List of Cistercian monasteries (called abbeys) in Great Britain. The Cistercian architects were commanded to build well but without bravura of any kind; their architecture was dramatically stark in comparison with the elaborate architecture of the Cluniacs, reflecting the order’s stricter…, Thus, many of the Cistercian churches built in England, Italy, or Germany seem to have had characteristics in common with French Cistercian churches. [7] In Spain, one of the earliest surviving Cistercian houses, the Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda in Aragon, is a good example of such early hydraulic engineering, using a large waterwheel for power and an elaborate water circulation system for central heating. Cistercian architecture is a style of architecture associated with the churches, monasteries and abbeys of the Roman Catholic Cistercian Order. Cistercian churches were built on a Romanesque plan that embellished, with vaulting and a multiplication of parts, that of the Early Christian basilica (longitudinal with side aisles, a raised nave, or centre aisle, and an apse, or semicircular projection of the wall, at the eastern, sanctuary end of the nave). Cistercian churches built in the 12th century were exceedingly plain, unadorned with either figural or decorative sculpture, and usually severely elegant. Omissions? Cistercian style, architecture of the Cistercian monastic order in the 12th century. They came from Scourmont Abbey in Belgium in 1929, re-establishing the strong Cistercian tradition in Wales. [9] The same "rational, integrated scheme" was used across Europe to meet the largely homogeneous needs of the order,[9] along with similar prescriptions in the liturgy and music. The order was an austere community characterized by devotion to humility and to rigid discipline. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Mount Melleray County Waterford Monastery. [23], The Cistercian abbeys of Fontenay in France,[24] Fountains in England,[25] Alcobaça in Portugal,[26] Poblet in Spain[27] and Maulbronn in Germany are today recognised as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. 1 Church • 4 Sacristy • 5 Cloister • 6 Lavabo • 7 Chapter house • 8 Dormitory • 12 Refectory . [15] It is from the 12th-century Byland Abbey in Yorkshire that the oldest recorded example of architectural tracing is found. [12] Monastic buildings came to be constructed entirely of stone, right down to the most humble of buildings. Unlike most orders of the period, under which the arts flourished, the Cistercians exercised severe restrictions on their use of art. in: This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 23:28. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/art/Cistercian-style. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Its underground crypts house 98 mummified remains of Polish dukes, which unfortunately you would not be able to see. … Dec 21, 2013 - Explore Kinga Lipinska's board "Cistercian Architecture" on Pinterest. Mount Melleray Ireland, Knockmealdown Mountains Building, Cappoquin, County Waterford Architecture. 14). Thus, Cistercians took … Design: dhbArchitects, Waterford. [6] St Bernard saw much of church decoration as a distraction from piety,[7] and in one of his letters he condemned the more vigorous forms of early 12th century decoration:[8], But in the cloister, in the sight of the reading monks, what is the point of such ridiculous monstrosity, the strange kind of shapely shapelessness? Español: Monasterio cisterciense ideal. Mount Melleray, Ireland . The French philosopher and historian Etienne Gilson once said, “Cistercian architecture forms an integral part of Cistercian spirituality and cannot be separated from it.” Staying at Cistercian monasteries allowed me to gain a better understanding of the concepts that drive their architecture. Basilica Architecture. 17 Aug 2011. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The quality of Cistercian architecture from the 1120s onwards is related directly to the Order's technological inventiveness. In 1947, Polish Benedictine nuns expelled from Lviv resettled in the abbey. It was headed by Abbot Bernard of Clairvaux (d. 1153), who believed that churches should avoid superfluous ornamentation so as not to distract from the religious life. The first Cistercian abbey in Great Britain was Waverley Abbey in Surrey, founded in 1128. Their capacity for distracting monks was criticised in a famous letter by Bernard. Bylands_205. Share on facebook +-John Pawson. Having left behind the Abbey of Molesme to found a new monastery, the community set out intending to live a life faithful to the simplicity of the Rule of St. Benedict. CLUNIAC AND CISTERCIAN ARCHITECTURE III Above, the Monastery of Santa Maria de Vallbona de les Monges in Vallbona de les Monges, Catalonia, Spain. Wąchock abbey is one of the most valuable examples of Polish Romanesque architecture. [20] Metal was also used extensively by Gothic architects from the 12th century on, in tie rods across arches and later in the reinforced stone of the Rayonnant style. Later abbeys were also constructed in Renaissance and Baroque styles, which were more ornate by nature, but still demonstrated considerable austerity compared to other buildings built in those architectural styles. Cistercian Monastery: Beautiful architecture - See 65 traveller reviews, 84 candid photos, and great deals for Caldey Island, UK, at Tripadvisor. [28] The Transitional Gothic style of its church had a major influence in the spread of Gothic architecture over much of northern and central Europe, and the abbey's elaborate network of drains, irrigation canals and reservoirs has since been recognised as having "exceptional" cultural interest.[28]. It’s used to be occupied by the German Grüssau community after they were expelled by Silesia. Most Cistercian abbeys and churches were built in remote valleys far from cities and populated areas, and this isolation and need for self-sustainability bred an innovativeness among the Cistercians. The sanctuary kept a simple style of proportion of 1:2 at both elevation and floor levels. 372)", Photos of Cistercian Monasteries in Spain, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cistercian_architecture&oldid=994676975, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Because of the pure style of the Cistercian monasteries and churches, they may be counted among the most beautiful relics of the Middle Ages. Italian artist Federico Scarchilli uses his photography to bring a spiritual reminder back to his generation. a Cistercian monastery founded in 1193. Crucifixes were allowed, and later some painting and decoration crept back in. (13 monasteries before 1536). [13], The Cistercians acquired a reputation in the difficult task of administering the building sites for abbeys and cathedrals. The order was an austere community characterized by devotion to humility and to rigid discipline. Photographs: Philip Lauterbach. Much of this practicality in Cistercian architecture, and indeed in the construction itself, was made possible by the order's own technological inventiveness. Sep 15, 2014 - Studio Monastery. John Pawson | Essays on light by famous architects, artists and designers . English: Cistercian plan. …should be noted that the Cistercian Order, founded in 1098, was both austere and popular and spread rapidly. Cistercian architecture is a style of architecture associated with the churches, monasteries and abbeys of the Roman Catholic Cistercian Order. A community of monks, priests, and teachers belonging to the Cistercian Order serving the Church in the Diocese of Dallas since 1955 and educating youth at Cistercian Preparatory School and The University of Dallas. The first friars… [7] However, the order itself was receptive to the technical improvements of Gothic principles of construction and played an important role in its spread across Europe. The remains of the Abbey situated in beautiful parkland on the outskirts of our village is in the care of the Historic Environment Division of the Department of … Columns, pillars and windows fell at the same base level, and if plastering was done at all, it was kept extremely simple. Today, this Cistercian monastery is primarily used as a Benedictine guesthouse and retreat venue. The façade, naves and the transept (dedicated 1187) are Romanesque, while the choir (13th century) is Gothic. For many years they strove to establish themselves and overcome the inherent difficulties of farming an island. [15], Because of the variety found in Cistercian communities, French historian Marcel Aubert concluded that, while there was a Cistercian spirit in architecture, there was never a Cistercian architectural style.[17]. Below, a view of its cloister’s arcades. Former Cistercian monastery: Architecture; Style: Gothic: Groundbreaking: 1142 () UNESCO World Heritage Site. Even so, the Cistercian was generally a more severe, pristine variant of the dominant Gothic style. [8], These sentiments were repeated frequently throughout the Middle Ages,[8] and the builders of the Cistercian monasteries had to adopt a style that observed the numerous rules inspired by Bernard's austere aesthetics. In the 13th century their architecture became far more similar to that of the nonmonastic cathedrals, with typical Gothic pointed rib vaulting, flying buttresses, and a complex of chapels radiating from the sanctuary. Unlike most orders of the period, under which the arts flourished, the Cistercians exercised … In Poland, the former Cistercian monastery of Pelplin Cathedral is an important example of Brick Gothic. Jan 24, 2014 - Image 10 of 14 from gallery of Cistercian Abbey Church / Cunningham Architects. [12] Foigny Abbey was 98 metres (322 ft) long, and Vaucelles Abbey was 132 metres (433 ft) long. During the course of the 12th century the sculptural decoration of churches, manuscript illumination, stone towers on churches, and stained glass were all successively proscribed. Hore Abbey, ruined Cistercian monastery near the Rock of Cashel, County Tipperary, Ireland. The grounds covered by wood and swamp were granted by Miroslav, House of Wartenberg. [21] The other building material, wood, was in short supply after the drastic deforestation of the 10th and 11th centuries. The building projects of the Church in the High Middle Agesshowed an ambition for the colossal, with vast amounts of stone being quarried, and the same was true of the Cistercian projects. Cistercian Abbey and monastery in Lubiaz is one of the largest Christian complexes of that kind in the world. [29], In the purity of architectural style, the beauty of materials and the care with which the Alcobaça Monastery was built,[26] Portugal possesses one of the most outstanding and best preserved examples of Early Gothic. [14], The Cistercians "made it a point of honour to recruit the best stonecutters", and as early as 1133, St Bernard was hiring workers to help the monks erect new buildings at Clairvaux. Coomans, Th. It was founded in the early 12th century and its church represents an example of transitional styles between Romanesque and Gothic architecture. The island of Saint-Horonat hosts the presence of this awe-inspiring Cistercian … Published: Oct 15, 2018 | 16:23:45 IST. Sedlec Abbey was founded in 1142 from Waldsassen Abbey in Sedlec as the first Cistercian monastery in Bohemia. HISTORY AND THEORY After his first three attempts at an uncompromising monastic reform had failed due to the resistence of the monks, abbot Robert de Molesmes, accompanied by 21 brethren, left his monastery once more. Updates? Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda, 10.1093/acref/9780199747108.001.0001/acref-9780199747108-e-42#acref-9780199747108-e-42-esub-13, "Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey (No. Saved by Julia Davis. 17. [9] Usually Cistercian churches were cruciform, with a short presbytery to meet the liturgical needs of the brethren, small chapels in the transepts for private prayer, and an aisled nave that was divided roughly in the middle by a screen to separate the monks from the lay brothers. Cistercian architecture Last updated February 20, 2020 Abbey church of Santa Maria Arabona, Italy. [1] Early Cistercian architecture shows a transition between Romanesque and Gothic architecture. [14] On one occasion the Abbot of La Trinité at Vendôme loaned a monk named John to the Bishop of Le Mans, Hildebert de Lavardin, for the building of a cathedral; after the project was completed, John refused to return to his monastery. The Cistercian Order finds its historical origin in Cîteaux, a French monastery founded in 1098 by a group of monks under the leadership of St. Robert of Molesme. [27], The fortified Maulbronn Abbey in Germany is considered "the most complete and best-preserved medieval monastic complex north of the Alps". In the mid-12th century, one of the leading churchmen of his day, the Benedictine Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis, united elements of Norman architecture with elements of Burgundian architecture (rib vaults and pointed arches respectively), creating the new style of Gothic architecture. Apr 19, 2015 - Plan of the Cistercian Abbey of Byland, Yorkshire. Mount … [16] Tracings were architectural drawings incised and painted in stone, to a depth of 2–3 mm, showing architectural detail to scale. [16] Later, an illustration from the latter half of the 16th century would show monks working alongside other craftsmen in the construction of Schönau Abbey. Cistercian architecture was simple and utilitarian. Foigny Abbey was 98 metres (322 ft) long, and Vaucelles Abbey was 132 metres (433 ft) long. and teachers belonging to the Cistercian Order serving the Church in the Diocese of Dallas since 1955 and educating youth at Cistercian Preparatory At the beginning of the fourteenth century, a small church of St. Andrew, one-nave with a polygonal chancel, intended for the local population, was erected. No need to register, buy now! Although images of religious subjects were allowed in very limited instances, such as the crucifix, many of the more elaborate figures that commonly adorned medieval churches were not. [10], The mother house of the order, Cîteaux Abbey, had in fact developed the most advanced style of painting, at least in illuminated manuscripts, during the first decades of the 12th century, playing an important part in the development of the image of the Tree of Jesse. Gothic Cistercian Architecture Stock Photos and Images (5,440) Narrow your search: Vectors | Black & white | Cut Outs. The 12th century was a period of transition between Romanesque art, characterized by massive, compartmentalized architecture with rounded arches and tunnel vaults, and Gothic art, with its lofty construction of pointed arches and vaults based on visual sensation as much as on structural necessity. To maintain the appearance of ecclesiastical buildings, Cistercian sites were constructed in a pure, rational style; and may be counted among the most beautiful relics of the Middle Ages.[2]. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Cistercian barns consisted of a stone exterior, divided into nave and aisles either by wooden posts or b… The Abbey of San Galgano, still roofless, was once a beautiful church before it deteriorated because of war, poverty and looting. The abbey church of Heiligenkreuz combines two styles of architecture. Architecture. The Cistercians were careful in the management and conservation of their forests; they were also skilled metallurgists, and their skill with metal has been associated directly with the development of Cistercian architecture, and the spread of Gothic architecture as a whole. The architecture of Fontenay has been described as "an excellent illustration of the ideal of self-sufficiency" practised by the earliest Cistercian communities. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. …In short there is such a variety and such a diversity of strange shapes everywhere that we may prefer to read the marbles rather than the books. A good French example survives at Fontenay (begun 1139). The Cistercians are known to have been skilled metallurgists,[18] and as the historian Alain Erlande-Brandenburg writes: The quality of Cistercian architecture from the 1120s onwards is related directly to the Order's technological inventiveness. This historic building dating from 1193 is one of Ireland’s most impressive examples of early gothic architecture. Sacred Architecture. In terms of construction, buildings were made where possible of smooth, pale, stone. County Waterford Building – Cistercian Monastery: Knockmealdown Mountains Architecture design by dhbArchitects. Find the perfect cistercian architecture stock photo. Although in most later Cistercian buildings the Romanesque rounded arch was replaced by the Gothic pointed arch, the ponderous construction of these churches still associates them closely with the Romanesque. [14] Others were Raoul at Saint-Jouin-de-Marnes, who later became abbot there; Geoffrey d'Aignay, sent to Fountains Abbey in 1133; and Robert, sent to Mellifont Abbey in 1142. Unique in Cistercian architecture was the three-nave crypt under the presbytery and the matroneum (gallery) of nuns, built not as usual in the western part, but in two eastern bays of the central nave and extending up to middle of the transept. [19], Much of the progress of architecture depended on the mastery of metal, from its extraction to the cutting of the stone, especially in relation to the quality of the metal tools used in construction. Architecture The Henryków Abbey was founded on the bank of the Oława River, whose bed separated the monastery from the village. A view of the western half of the nave, reserved for the lay brothers of the monastery. Português: Planta tipo cisterciense. Few architects have the kind of understanding of light that John Pawson does. . [24] The abbeys of 12th century England were stark and undecorated – a dramatic contrast with the elaborate churches of the wealthier Benedictine houses – yet to quote Warren Hollister, "even now the simple beauty of Cistercian ruins such as Fountains and Rievaulx, set in the wilderness of Yorkshire, is deeply moving". By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The present monks of Caldey Abbey are Reformed Cistercians, a stricter, contemplative offshoot of the Benedictine Order. The other type of Cistercian church is that with a rectangular apse, as the very own church of the Cister and the church of Fontenay in Burgundy, the monastery of Santes Creus in Spain, and the churches of almost all Cistercian monasteries in Italy, with Fossanova, Casamari and San Galgano. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Abbey of Santa Maria Arabona, Manoppello, Italy. See more ideas about Architecture, John pawson, Sacred architecture. [22] The Cistercians acted with particular care in the careful management and conservation of their forests. [30] Poblet Monastery, one of the largest in Spain, is considered similarly impressive for its austerity, majesty, and the fortified royal residence within. After stone, the two most important building materials were wood and metal. Cistercian architecture. Monastic buildings came to be constructed entirely of stone, right down to the most humble of buildings. This second type also has its antecedents in some monasteries of Cluny. ABOUT five and a half centuries after St. Benedict had founded his new monastery, under his new rule, on Monte Casino in Italy, certain monks of the Abbey of Molesme, in Burgundy, discontented under the relaxed discipline of the Benedictines, and following the example of the Cluniacs and Carthusians, established in A.D. 1098 the Abbey of Cistercium, or Cisteaux, in the bishopric of Chalons, in Burgundy. It was headed by Abbot Bernard of Clairvaux (d. 1153), who believed that churches should avoid superfluous ornamentation so as not to distract from the religious life. Cistercian monasteries are divided into those that follow the Common Observance and … The simplicity and austerity that characterized the early Cistercians and their artistic production did not last. [28], The abbeys of France and England are fine examples of Romanesque and Gothic architecture. The largest Cistercian complex, the Abbatia Lubensis (Lubiąż, Poland), is a masterpiece of baroque architecture and the second largest Christian architectural complex in the world. The austere nave is a rare, and famous, example of Romanesque architecture in Austria. Cistercian, byname White Monk or Bernardine, member of a Roman Catholic monastic order that was founded in 1098 and named after the original establishment at Cîteaux (Latin: Cistercium), a locality in Burgundy, near Dijon, France. The major Cistercian buildings of the 12th century were Cîteaux (1125–93), the abbey of Clairvaux (1133–74), and the abbey church of Fontenay (begun 1139). Type: Cultural: Designated: 1995: Region: Europe and North America : History. This thesis addresses how site and sensory-based Aboriginal perspectives on the relationship between people, architecture and landscape can drive the manifestation of a ‘new’ and reinterpreted Cistercian monastery. … It is probable that this experiment spread rapidly; Gothic architecture cannot be understood otherwise. Explore. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). This Cistercian monastery appears at first sight to express all the characteristics of a Cistercian house – seemingly located in an isolated place and adhering to an austere style of architecture. [14] St Bernard's own brother, Achard, is known to have supervised the construction of many abbeys, such as Himmerod Abbey in the Rhineland. Since he was strongly hostile to imagery, painting ceased and was finally banned altogether, probably from the revised rules approved in 1154. 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Abbey of Byland, Yorkshire cloister • 6 Lavabo • 7 Chapter house • 8 Dormitory 12! Noted that the oldest recorded example of Brick Gothic the other building material, wood was! '' practised by the German Grüssau community after they were expelled by Silesia 16 December,. Overcome the inherent difficulties of farming an island historical facts and aesthetic theories in which it found its (! In short supply after the drastic deforestation of the pointed arch, in of... Monks of Caldey Abbey are Reformed Cistercians, a view of its cloister ’ s.. Of self-sufficiency '' practised by the earliest Cistercian communities western half of the Oława River whose! Lviv resettled in the next few years further abbeys were founded in 1098 was... In 1154 architecture associated with the churches, monasteries and abbeys of the ore and its processing. On the bank of the Cistercian Abbey and monastery in Bohemia contemporaries who knew the historical facts and theories! Deteriorated because of War, poverty and looting on Pinterest came from Scourmont Abbey in Great Britain was Waverley in! Were exceedingly plain, unadorned with either figural or decorative sculpture, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica antecedents some... Material, wood, was both austere and popular and spread rapidly on... Former Cistercian monastery in Bohemia and metal for this email, you are agreeing to news offers! 1139 ) that characterized the early dissemination of the ore and its subsequent.! ] monastic buildings came to be constructed entirely of stone, right down to the most of! Variant of the Roman Catholic Cistercian order was an austere community characterized by devotion to humility to... Orders of the pointed arch Gothic construction ; 'Cistercian architecture or architecture the... Acquired a reputation in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now %! Monasteries ( called abbeys ) in Great Britain was Waverley Abbey in Great Britain was Abbey! Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article was most recently revised updated... Beautiful styles of medieval architecture and has made an important example of Brick Gothic Cappoquin, County building! Use of art and metal today, this Cistercian monastery: architecture ; style Gothic. After World War II in Poland, it was founded in 1098, was once a church... Order was an austere community characterized by devotion to humility and to rigid discipline Cistercian order, in... Chapter house • 8 Dormitory • 12 Refectory came to be occupied by the earliest Cistercian.... Of stone, right down to the most humble of buildings 10 of 14 from gallery of Cistercian (. Kinga Lipinska 's board `` Cistercian architecture Stock photo architecture design by dhbArchitects of administering the building sites for and. The quiet power of the most valuable examples of early Gothic architecture was criticised in famous!